Chii chinonzi UK muhoro wakaderera (2024 yakagadziridzwa ruzivo)

Ndeipi muhoro wepasi muEngland? Imaeuro mangani iyo UK yakaderera muhoro? Vanhu vanoda kugara nekushanda muEngland (United Kingdom) vari kuongorora kuti muhoro wepasi muEngland ndewei. Tinokutsanangurira kuti maeuro mangani, mapondo mangani uye mangani eUSD ndiyo yakanyanya kutambirwa muUK.



Usati wapinda munyaya yekuti muhoro wepasi ndewei muUK, zvingave zvinobatsira kupa ruzivo rwekutanga nezvemihoro yemuhoro inoiswa muUK.

Chekutanga, ngatipei ruzivo nezve mihoro midiki yemuhoro yakashandiswa muEngland (United Kingdom).

Minimum muhoro muEngland

Tisati tataura nezvekuti ingani mubairo wepasi muUK, isu tinofanirwa kupa ruzivo nezve mari yeUK uye mashoma emuhoro modhi.

Pondo yeBritish ndiyo mari yepamutemo inoshandiswa neUnited Kingdom. British pondo, inoparadzirwa neBank of England. Iyo subunit yeBritish pondo sterling ndeye sendiiri uye 100 pennies kune 1 British pound kuenzana. Iyo British pondo inozivikanwa seGBP mumusika wepasi rose.

MuUK, mubairo wepasi unowanzo kudzokororwa musi wa 1 Kubvumbi gore rega rega. Kana kuchizove nekuwedzera kwemuhoro wepasi, kuwedzera uku kunoitwa musi waApril 1 gore rega rega.

Minimum muhoro application muEngland (United Kingdom) inosiyana zvichienderana nezera revashandi. Kune maviri akasiyana mibairo yemuhoro wepasi muUK. Iyi tariffs:

Kana iwe uine makore makumi maviri nematatu kana kupfuura, iyo National Living Wage inobhadharwa. Mubairo wekurarama wenyika unoratidzwa seNational Living Wage (NLW).

Vanhu vari pasi pemakore makumi maviri nematatu ekuberekwa uye vari kudzidzira basa vanopihwa muhoro weNational Minimum Wage, unonzi National Minimum Wage (NMW).

Pakupedzisira, musi wa 1 Kubvumbi 2023, mubairo wepasi muEngland wevashandi vane makore makumi maviri nematatu zvichikwira wakatemwa se £23 (23 British Pounds). Mari iyi muyero weawa. Muhoro wepasi muEngland uchatemwazve muna Kubvumbi 10,42, 10,42. Kana muhoro wepasi watemwa zvakare muEngland muna Kubvumbi 1, 2024, isu tichavandudza chinyorwa ichi uye kukuzivisa iwe mutsva wemuhoro mutsva.

Zvino ngationei mutafura muhoro wepasi unobhadharwa kuvashandi vane makore makumi maviri nematatu zvichikwira uye muhoro wepasi unobhadharwa kune vashandi vari pasi pemakore makumi maviri nematatu nevanodzidzira basa.

Muhoro wepasi muUKMari iripo (kubva muna Kubvumbi 1, 2023)
Makore 23 uye pamusoro (National Living Wage)£10,42 (12,2 Euro) (13,4 USD)
21 kusvika 22 makore£10,18 (11,9 Euro) (13,1 USD)
18 kusvika 20 makore£7,49 (8,7 Euro) (13,1 USD)
pasi pe18£5,28 (6 Euro) (6,8 USD)
mudzidzi£5,28 (6 Euro) (6,8 USD)

Muhoro wepasi muEngland wakapedzisira kutsanangurwa musi wa 1 Kubvumbi 2023 uye uchatemwa zvakare musi wa 1 Kubvumbi 2024. Hurumende inoongorora mibairo midiki gore rega rega uye inowanzovandudzwa muna Kubvumbi. Mubairo waunoona patafura muhoro weawa.

Kubva 1 Kubvumbi 2024, vashandi vane makore makumi maviri nerimwe zvichikwira vachange vachikodzera kuwana National Living Wage.

Izvo zvinopesana nemutemo kuti mushandirwi abhadhare mari shoma pane iyo National Minimum Wage kana National Living Wage.

Vanofanirawo kuchengeta zvinyorwa zvemihoro zvakarurama uye kuita kuti zviwanikwe kana zvakumbirwa.

Kana mushandirwi akasabhadhara muhoro wepasi nemazvo, anofanira kugadzirisa dambudziko nekukurumidza sezvinobvira.

Mushandirwi anewo basa rekubhadhara muhoro wepasi nenguva uye pasina kunonoka. Izvi ndezvechokwadi kunyange kana mushandi kana mushandi asisiri kushanda.

Izvo zvinopesana nemutemo kuti mushandirwi abhadhare mari shoma pane iyo National Minimum Wage kana National Living Wage.

Vanofanirawo kuchengeta zvinyorwa zvemihoro zvakarurama uye kuita kuti zviwanikwe kana zvakumbirwa.

Kana mushandirwi akasabhadhara muhoro wepasi nemazvo, anofanira kugadzirisa dambudziko nekukurumidza sezvinobvira.

Ndiani anobhadharwa mari shoma muUK?

Wese munhu anoshanda semushandi kana mushandi anofanira kuwana National Minimum Wage kana National Living Wage.

Somuenzaniso,

  • vashandi venguva yakazara
  • vashandi venguva pfupi
  • Avo vane kudzidziswa kunodiwa pabasa racho
  • avo vanoshanda mudiki kana 'kutanga-basa' bhizinesi

Inoshandawo kune:

  • vashandi vesangano
  • vashandi vekurima
  • vadzidzisi
  • vashandi vezuva rimwe chete, somunhu anoripirwa zuva rimwe chete
  • vashandi venguva pfupi
  • vashandi vekuongorora
  • vashandi vokune dzimwe nyika
  • vashandi vemumba
  • vashandi vekumahombekombe
  • vafambisi vezvikepe
  • vashandi vanobhadharwa nekomisheni
  • Vashandi vanobhadharwa zvichienderana nehuwandu hwezvigadzirwa zvakaitwa (piece work)
  • vashandi veawa zero

Mhando chete dzebasa dzisina kuvharwa ndeidzi:

  • freelancer (kusarudza)
  • mumwe anozvipira (nekusarudza)
  • maneja wekambani
  • mumauto
  • kuita ruzivo rwebasa sechikamu chekosi
  • basa mumvuri
  • zera rekusiya chikoro

Unogara mumba memushandirwi wako

Unekodzero yemuhoro wakaderera chaiwo kana uchigara mumba memushandirwi wako, kunze kwekunge:

  • Kana iwe uri nhengo yemhuri yemushandirwi, havafanirwe kukubhadhara iwe wemuhoro wepasi.
  • Kana usiri nhengo yemhuri yewaunoshandira asi uchigovana basa uye zviitwa zvekutandara uye usingabhadhariswe zvekudya kana pekugara, mushandirwi haafanire kukubhadhara muhoro wepasi.

Muhoro wepasi uchakwira riini muUK?

Pane dzimwe nguva apo vashandi kana vashandi vachave nekodzero yehuwandu hwepamusoro hwemuhoro, semuenzaniso:

  • Kana hurumende ichiwedzera mibairo mishoma (kazhinji muna Kubvumbi gore rega rega)
  • Kana mushandi kana mushandi akasvitsa makore 18, 21 kana 23 ezera
  • Kana mudzidzi akasvitsa makore gumi nemapfumbamwe kana kupedza gore rekutanga rekudzidzira basa kwazvino

Mwero wepamusoro unotanga kushanda kubva muhoro referensi nguva mushure mekuwedzera. Izvi zvinoreva kuti muhoro wemumwe munhu unogona kusakwira nekukasika. Nguva yereferensi ndeye 1 mwedzi kune avo vanogamuchira mihoro yavo mwedzi nemwedzi. Nguva yereferensi haigoni kudarika mwedzi 1.

a in englandChii chinogona kubviswa pamuhoro wepasi?

Waunoshandira anobvumidzwa kubvisa zvimwe kubva kuNational Minimum Wage kana National Living Wage. Izvi zvakabviswa ndezvi:

  • mutero uye National Insurance mipiro
  • kubhadharwa kwekare kana kubhadhara
  • mipiro yemudyandigere
  • mihoro yemubatanidzwa
  • pekugara inopiwa nemushandirwi wako

Chii chisingakwanise kubviswa kubva pamuhoro wepasi?

Vamwe vanobhadhara kubviswa uye mari ine chekuita nebasa haigone kudzikisa muhoro wako pasi pemuhoro udiki.

Mimwe mienzaniso:

  • zvishandiso
  • yunifomu
  • mari yekufambisa (kunze kwekufamba kuenda nekubva kubasa)
  • mari yezvidzidzo zvekumanikidzira

Ndekupi kukwidza chichemo kana mushandirwi achibhadhara mari shoma pane inotambirwa?

Kana mushandi asina kubhadharwa mari shoma anogona kunyunyuta kuHMRC. HMRC (UK Revenue uye Tsika) inozivikanwa seHer-His Majesty's Revenue & Customs.

Zvichemo kuHMRC zvinogona kusazivikanwa. Mumwe wechitatu, akadai seshamwari, nhengo yemhuri, kana mumwe munhu waanoshanda naye, anogonawo kumhan’ara.

Kana HMRC ikaona kuti mushandirwi haana kubhadhara mubairo wepasi, chiito chakanangana nemushandirwi chinosanganisira:

  • Kupa chiziviso chekubhadhara mari yakakweretwa, kudzokera shure kwemakore anopfuura matanhatu
  • Faindi inosvika zviuru makumi maviri zve £20.000 uye faindi yeinosvika £100 pamushandi wega wega kana mushandi anenge abatwa, kunyangwe kukosha kwekubhadhara kuri kushoma.
  • Kuita kwemutemo, kusanganisira kutongerwa mhosva
  • Kuendesa mazita emabhizinesi nevashandirwi kuDhipatimendi reBusiness and Trade (DBT), iro rinogona kuvaisa paruzhinji runyoro.

Kana mushandi kana mushandi asina kupihwa mari shoma, vanogona zvakare kunyorera kudare revashandi.

Vanofanira kusarudza kuita izvi kana kunyunyuta kuHMRC. Havakwanise kuendesa nyaya imwechete kuburikidza nemaitiro maviri emutemo.

Imarii iyo mushandi kana mushandi anogona kutora ichaenderana nerudzi rwekuda kwaanoita. Semuenzaniso, kana vakakumbira kuti mari shoma isabhadharwa, vanogona kukumbira zvikwereti zvavo kusvika makore maviri apfuura.

Ndiani asina kodzero yemuhoro wepasi muUK?

Haana kodzero yepasi pemuhoro

Aya anotevera marudzi evashandi haana kodzero yeNational Minimum Wage kana National Living Wage:

  • vanhu vanozvishandira vanoita bhizimusi ravo
  • vatungamiri vekambani
  • vanhu vanozvipira
  • Avo vanoshanda muchirongwa chehurumende chebasa seChirongwa cheBasa
  • nhengo dzemauto
  • Nhengo dzemhuri yemushandirwi dzinogara mumba memushandirwi
  • Nhengo dzisiri dzemhuri dzinogara kumba kwemushandirwi, basa rekugoverana uye nhandaro, dzinoonekwa senhengo dzemhuri uye hadzibhadhariswi zvekudya kana pekugara, semuenzaniso ma-au-pairs.
  • vashandi vadiki pane zera rekusiya chikoro (kazhinji 16)
  • vadzidzi vepamusoro uye vanoenderera mberi nedzidzo vanoita ruzivo rwebasa kana kuiswa kwebasa kweanosvika gore rimwe
  • vashandi muzvirongwa zvehurumende zvepre-apprenticeship
  • Vanhu vari muEuropean Union (EU) zvirongwa: Leonardo da Vinci, Erasmus+, Comenius
  • Vanhu vanoshanda kwemavhiki matanhatu muyedzo yeJobcentre Plus Work
  • kugovera varedzi
  • vasungwa
  • vanhu vanogara uye vanoshanda munharaunda yechitendero

Ndeapi maawa ekushanda akawanda pasvondo muUK?

  • Vazhinji vashandi pakati nepakati sezvo anopfuura maawa 48 pasvondo haifaniri kushanda. Iyi nguva inowanzoitika 17 vhiki Inoverengwa pane imwe nguva yereferensi.
  • anopfuura makore 18 okuberekwa vashandi, optionally Vanogona kusarudza kudarika muganhu we48-awa. Izvi,"48 awa vhiki usakanda mapfumo pasiInozivikanwa se.
  • mudiki pane 18 vashandi, anopfuura maawa 40 pasvondo kana anopfuura maawa 8 pazuva haigoni kushanda.
  • Pane zvimwe zvasiyana. Semuenzaniso, avo vanoshanda mumabhizinesi kana masevhisi ekukurumidzira anoda 24-awa vashandi vanogona kushanda kupfuura iyo 48-awa yakatarwa.
  • vashandi, Maawa 11 pavhiki isina kukanganiswa nguva yekuzorora uye Maawa 24 pavhiki anekodzero yekuzorora.
  • Muripo wenguva yakawedzerwa ndiwo unotambirwa nemutemo 1,25 nguva zvinofanira kuva.

Mangani mazuva ezororo repagore repamutemo muUK?

Kodzero yezororo repagore zviri pamutemo

Vazhinji vashandi vanoshanda mazuva mashanu pasvondo vanofanirwa kugashira angangoita mazuva makumi maviri nemasere ezororo repagore rinobhadharwa pagore. Izvi zvakaenzana nemavhiki e5 ezororo. 

basa renguva pfupi

Vashandi venguva pfupi vanoshanda maawa akajairwa gore rose vane kodzero yeanosvika mavhiki mashanu neshanu ezororo rinobhadharwa, asi izvi zvichange zvisingasviki mazuva makumi maviri nemasere. 

Semuenzaniso, kana vakashanda mazuva matatu pasvondo, vanofanirwa kutora mazuva 3 (16,8×3) yezororo pagore.

Vanhu vanoshanda maawa asina kujairika kana chikamu chegore (sevashandi venguva pfupi) vane kodzero yekusvika mavhiki 5,6 ezororo remutemo.

Mushandirwi anogona kusarudza kupa zororo rakawanda kupfuura iro rishoma remutemo. Ivo havafanirwe kushandisa mirairo yese inoshanda kune pamutemo zororo kune imwe zororo. Somuenzaniso, mushandi angafanira kushandirwa kwenhambo yakati yenguva kuti akwanirise.

Zvinoita here kushanda neSvondo muEngland?

Kushanda neSvondo kunoenderana nekuti munhu wacho anotaurwa here mune chimwe chezvinotevera:

  • bhizinesi kuronga
  • chirevo chakanyorwa chemitemo nemamiriro

Mushandi haakwanisi kushanda neSvondo kunze kwekunge abvumirana nemushandirwi wake uye anyora izvi (somuenzaniso, kunze kwekunge achinja chibvumirano).

Vashandirwi vanozofanira kubhadhara vashandi zvakanyanya pakushanda chete neSvondo kana izvi zvabvumiranwa sechikamu chekondirakiti.

Kushanda muzvitoro nezvitoro zvekubheja neSvondo

Vashandi havafanirwe kushanda neSvondo kana:

  • Vashandi vemuzvitoro vakatanga basa nemushandirwi wavo musi wa26 Nyamavhuvhu 1994 kana kuti usati wasvika (muNorthern Ireland izvi zviri musi wa4 Zvita 1997 kana usati)
  • Vashandi vezvitoro zvekubheja vakatanga kushanda nemushandirwi wavo musi wa2 Ndira 1995 kana usati wasvika (kuNorthern Ireland izvi zviriko kana kuti pamberi pa26 Kukadzi 2004)
  • Vashandi vese vanofanirwa kuziviswa nezvekodzero yavo yekushanda neSvondo ino pavanotanga basa.

Usakanda mapfumo pasi pakushanda neSvondo

Vese vashandi vemuchitoro vanogona kusiya kushanda neSvondo chero bedzi Svondo risiri iro rega zuva ravanowanikwa kuti vashande. Vanogona kusiya kushanda neSvondo pese pavanenge vachida, kunyangwe vakabvumirana nazvo mukondirakiti yavo.

Vashandi vezvitoro vanofanira:

  • Kuzivisa vashandirwi vavo mwedzi mitatu pachine nguva mberi kuti vanoda kurega
  • Kuenderera mberi nekushanda neSvondo mukati memwedzi mitatu yekuzivisa nguva kana mushandirwi akakumbira

Mushandirwi anoda kuti vashandi vashande neSvondo anofanira kuzivisa vashandi ava netsamba kuti vangabuda mubasa iri. Vanofanira kuita izvi mukati memwedzi miviri yemunhu atanga basa; Kana vakasadaro, vanongoda chiziviso chemwedzi mumwe chete kuti vabvise.

Ruzivo Rwokuwedzera paUK Minimum Wage:

  • Muhoro wakaderera wevanhu vanoshanda muUK hupenyu hunokodzera chiremera chemunhu vakatsunga kuona kuti vanoenderera mberi.
  • Minimum muhoro, kuwedzera inflation ve mari yepakati pehupenyu zvinotemerwa nekufunga.
  • Kuti uone muhoro wepasi Low Pay Commission Bhodhi rakazvimirira rinonzi (Low Pay Commission) rinoshanda.
  • Low Pay Commission, gore rega rega Kana mari shoma ichawedzerwa kana kuti kwete ve kuwedzera sei anosarudza.

Kukosha Kwemari Yakaderera:

  • Minimum muhoro, kuderedza urombo ve kusaenzana kwevanhu inobatsira kugadzirisa dambudziko.
  • Minimum muhoro, simba rekutenga revashandi inowedzera uye kushandiswa anokurudzira.
  • Minimum muhoro, kukukura kwehupfumi zvinobatsira.

Nhaurirano NezveMihoro Yepasi:

  • muhoro wepasi kana zvakwana Kukurukurirana pamusoro penyaya inoenderera mberi.
  • Vamwe vari pamusoro pemihoro yepasi kuwedzera kuwedzera Nepo vachikakavara kuti zvakafanira
  • Vamwe vari pamusoro pemihoro yepasi kuwedzera kuchawedzera urovha anodzivirira.

Muhoro wakaderera wevanhu vanoshanda muUK kodzero yakakosharori. Kuwedzera mari shoma, kuderedza urombo ve kusaenzana kwevanhu zvichabatsira kugadzirisa dambudziko.

Kushanda hupenyu muEngland

Upenyu hwekushanda muUK hunowanzoenderana nehurongwa hwakavakirwa pamitemo yemutemo uye hunochengetedza kodzero dzevashandi dzakasiyana. Kodzero dzevashandi nemamiriro ekushanda anoumbwa muUK nekupindira kwehurumende nemasangano akasiyana siyana. Heino rumwe ruzivo rwekutanga nezve hupenyu hwekushanda muUK:

  1. Mitemo neMitemo yeBasa: UK ine mitemo yakawanda nemirairo inochengetedza kodzero dzevashandi. Chimwe chezvakanyanya kukosha pakati peizvi iWorkers' Rights Act. Mutemo uyu unotonga kodzero dzakakosha dzevashandi uye mabasa evashandirwi kuvashandi.
  2. Kodzero dzeVashandiKodzero dzevashandi muUK dzinosanganisira maawa ekushanda ane musoro, kodzero dzezororo repagore, mabhenefiti emudyandigere neutano, uye pamuviri nezororo revabereki.
  3. Muripo uye Mutero: MuUK, mubairo wepasi, senge mubairo wepasi, wakatemerwa zviri pamutemo uye vashandirwi havagone kubhadhara mubairo uri pasi pemubairo uyu. Uyezve, mitero yakadai semutero wemari uye mipiro yeinishuwarenzi yenyika inobviswa zvakananga pamuhoro wemushandi.
  4. Kutsvaga Basa uye Kutsvaga Basa: Vanotsvaka basa muUK vanowanzowana basa kubva kwakasiyana siyana. Kutumirwa kwebasa kunowanzo kuburitswa kuburikidza nemawebhusaiti, mapepanhau, masangano emabasa uye mafemu ekupinza basa. Pamusoro pezvo, hurumende ine masangano anopinza vanhu basa uye masevhisi ekutsigira kufambisa nzira yekutsvaga nekutsvaga basa.
  5. Kushanda Tsika: Inyanzvi uye yakarongeka bhizinesi tsika inowanzoitika munzvimbo dzebasa muUK. Misangano yebhizinesi nekutaurirana zvinowanzoitwa mumutauro wepamutemo. Uyezve, kusimbiswa kunoiswa pakusiyana uye kuenzana munzvimbo yebasa.
  6. Mibatanidzwa uye Mumiriri weVashandi: MuUK, masangano evashandi anoita basa rakakosha mukudzivirira kodzero dzevashandi nekuchengetedza zvido zvevashandi. Munzvimbo zhinji dzebasa, masangano anoshanda nesimba uye anomiririra zvido zvevashandi.

Upenyu hwekushanda muUK hunoumbwa nekugara uchichinja mamiriro ehupfumi uye hwemagariro evanhu uye kutsigirwa nemitemo yepamutemo iripo. Naizvozvo, zvakakosha kuti avo vanoda kushanda muUK vatarise kune yazvino mitemo nemirairo.



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